“A word that is used to join words or phrases or sentences is called a conjunction.”
Ex.-God made the country and man made the town.
Three and three make six.
She must work hard, or she will fail.
[(As soon………..As), (Both……..and), (Either………..or), (Neither ……….. Nor), (Lest……….. should), (Not only………but also), (Hardly……….. before or when), (Though ……….yet),
(Whether …………..or), (Scarcely…………… when or before), (No sooner………..than)
Rule-1 when ‘as well as’, ‘along with’, ‘together with’ , ‘No less than’, ‘In addition to’ and ‘Not’ and ‘with’ join two subjects, the verb will be according to the first subject.
Ex.-Ram, as well as his ten friends, are going. (Incorrect)
Ram, as well as his ten friends, is going. (Correct)
The teacher, along with the students, were going (Incorrect)
The teacher along with the students, was going (Correct)
Rule-2‘A great many’ is always followed by a plural noun and a plural verb.
Ex.-A great many students have been declared successful.
Rule-3 If two subjects are joined by ‘Either-Or’, ‘Neither-Nor’, the verb agrees with the subject that is near.
Ex.-Either Ramesh or I are to do this work. (Incorrect)
Either Ramesh or I am to do this work. (Correct)
Neither he nor his friends is reading. (Incorrect)
Neither he nor his friends are reading. (Correct)
Rule-4‘One of’ always takes a plural noun after it.
Ex.-It is one of the important day in my life. (Incorrect)
It is one of the important days in my life. (Correct)
Rule-5 Use of (Not only – but also)
Ram is not only handsome but also intelligent.
(Here one person – two qualities)
Not only India but also Pakistan is poor.
(Here two persons – common quality)
When two subjects are joined by (Not only-but also) the verb must agree with the ‘second subject:
Ex.-Not only the students but also the teacher are playing. (Incorrect)
Not only the students but also the teacher is playing. (Correct)
He ate not only bananas but also apples.
He not only comes for swimming but also for coaching the learners. (Incorrect)
He comes not only for swimming but also for coaching the learners. (Correct)
Rule-6 ‘Scarcely’ and ‘Hardly’ are followed by ‘WHEN’ and not by ‘THAN’.
Ex.-I had Scarcely entered the room WHEN the phone rang.
Hardly had he seen his father when he stopped smoking.
Scarcely had he entered the room when the light came.
Hardly had he reached the school when it began to rain.
Rule-7 ‘Though’ is followed by ‘yet’ and not by ‘but’.
Ex.-Though he is poor but he is honest (Incorrect)
Though he is poor, yet he is honest. (Correct)
Although he is rich yet he is miser.
Though he is lame yet he can walk fast.
Rule-8 ‘No sooner’ is followed by ‘than’.
Ex.-No sooner had I entered the class than the students stood up.
No Sooner did I step out than it started raining.
No Sooner did I see my father than I stop smoking
No Sooner had I reached the station than the train departed.
Rule-9 ‘Lest’ must be followed by ‘should’.
Ex.-Read regularly lest you will fail. (Incorrect)
Read regularly lest you should fail. (Correct)
Run with care lest you should fall.
Rule-10 ‘Such’ is followed by ‘As’.
Ex.-Such a boy as I know is at the party.
He is Such a writer as everybody should read his books.
Rule-11 ‘So’ is followed by ‘That’.
Ex.-He is so weak that he cannot walk.
He is so handsome that every girl will be ready to marry him.
Rule-12 ‘UNLESS’ expresses a condition, It is always used in the negative sense. Thus ‘NOT’ is never used with ‘unless’.
Ex.-Unless you do not labor hard, you will not pass (Incorrect)
Unless you labor hard you will not pass (Correct)
Rule-13 ‘Until’ expresses time. It has a negative sense and thus ‘not’ should never be used with it.
Ex.-Wait here until I do not return (Incorrect)
Wait here until I Return.(Correct)
Rule-14 ‘Since’ indicates a point of time and ‘for’ stands for the length of time.
Ex.-He had been reading the book for two hours.
It has been raining since Monday last.
Ex.-15 ‘As if’ is used to convey the sense of pretension.
When ‘as if’ is used in this sense, ‘WERE’ is used in all cases, Even with third person singular.
Ex.-He behaves as if he was king. (Incorrect)
He behaves as if he were a king (Correct)
Rule-16 ‘BOTH’ is followed by ‘AND’ not (as well as, but)
Ex.-Ram is both tall and handsome.
Rule-17 Use of (Since, Because, For, As)
Ex.-It has been a year since I saw him
Since he is my father, I respect him.
I respect him because he is my father.
As he is my neighbour, I respect him
As he was not feeling well, he did not eat anything
Rule-18 ‘OR’ is used to introduce an alternative.
Ex.-Do or die.
Your purse ‘OR’ your life.
‘OR’ is used to mean ‘otherwise’
We must hasten or night will overtake us.
OR is used to show several Alternatives
He may study physics or chemistry or Biology or he may enter into trade.
Rule-19 ‘WHILE’ IS USED TO MEAN-
(i)During the time that, as long as
While there is hope there is life.
While he was sleeping, an enemy entered in the house.
(ii)At the same time that
The girl sang while the boys danced
Rule-20 ‘ONLY’ as a conjunction means-Except that
Ex.-A very pretty woman, only she squints a little