The present perfect

Introduction 

The present perfect tells us about the past and the present.
The aircraft has landed means that the aircraft is on the ground now.


Form

The present perfect is the present tense of have + a past participle.
I/you/we/they have washed OR I/you/we/they’ve washed
he/she/it has washed OR he/she/it’s washed

NEGATIVE
I/you/we/they haven’t washed
he/she/it hasn’t washed

QUESTION
have I/you/we/they washed?
has he/she/it washed?

Regular past participles end in ed, e.g. washed, landed, finished.
We’ve washed the dishes.
Have you opened your letter?
The aircraft has landed safely.
How many points has Matthew scored?
The students haven’t finished their exams.


Irregular forms
Some participles are irregular.
I’ve made a shopping list.
We’ve sold our car.
I’ve thought about it a lot.
Have you written the letter?
She hasn’t drunk her coffee.

There is a present perfect of be and of have.
The weather has been awful
I’ve had a lovely time, thank you.


USE

When we use the present perfect, we see things as happening in the past but having a result in the present.
We’ve washed the dishes. (They’re clean now.)
The aircraft has landed. (It’s on the ground now.)
We’ve eaten all the eggs. (There aren’t any left.)
They’ve learnt the words. (They know the words.)
You’ve broken this watch. (It isn’t working.)